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World Electric Vehicle Journal : Proposing a Hybrid Thermal Management System Based on Phase Change Material/Metal Foam for Lithium-Ion Batteries

Authors: Soheil Saeedipour, Ayat Gharehghani, Jabraeil Ahbabi Saray, Amin Mahmoudzadeh Andwari, and Maciej Mikulski.


The charging and discharging process of batteries generates a significant amount of heat, which can adversely affect their lifespan and safety. This study aims to enhance the performance of a lithium-ion battery (LIB) pack with a high discharge rate (5C) by proposing a combined battery thermal management system (BTMS) consisting of improved phase change materials (paraffin/aluminum composite) and forced-air convection. Battery thermal performance is simulated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to study the effects of heat transfer and flow parameters. To evaluate the impact of essential parameters on the thermal performance of the battery module, temperature uniformity and maximum temperature in the cells are evaluated. For the proposed cooling system, an ambient temperature of 24.5 °C and the application of a 3 mm thick paraffin/aluminum composite showed the best cooling effect. In addition, a 2 m/s inlet velocity with 25 mm cell spacing provided the best cooling performance, thus reducing the maximum temperature. The paraffin can effectively manage thermal parameters maintaining battery temperature stability and uniformity. Simulation results demonstrated that the proposed cooling system combined with forced-air convection, paraffin, and metal foam effectively reduced the maximum temperature and temperature difference in the battery by 308 K and 2.0 K, respectively.



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