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World Electric Vehicle Journal : Implementation Schemes for Electric Bus Fleets at Depots with Optimized Energy Procurements in Virtual Power Plant Operations

Andreas F. Raab, Enrico Lauth, Kai Strunz, and Dietmar Göhlich


For the purpose of utilizing electric bus fleets in metropolitan areas and with regard to providing active energy management at depots, a profound understanding of the transactions between the market entities involved in the charging process is given. The paper examines sophisticated charging strategies with energy procurements in joint market operation. Here, operation procedures and characteristics of a depot including the physical layout and utilization of appropriate charging infrastructure are investigated. A comprehensive model framework for a virtual power plant (VPP) is formulated and developed to integrate electric bus fleets in the power plant portfolio, enabling the provision of power system services. The proposed methodology is verified in numerical analysis by providing optimized dispatch schedules in day-ahead and intraday market operations.

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